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College of Veterinary Medicine

Raymond R. R. "Bob" Rowland

 Professor of Diagnostic Medicine and Pathobiology

BA, Biology, 1977, California State University, Fresno
MA, Microbiology, 1983, San Francisco State University
PhD, Microbiology, 1989, University of New Mexico School of Medicine
Postdoctoral Fellow, 1989-1994, University of Minnesota School of Medicine

K-231 Mosier Hall
Phone: 785-532-4631
Fax: 785-532-4481
Email browland@vet.k-state.edu


The overall goal of my research is to investigate emerging disease problems in swine, with an emphasis on viral infections. The bulk of these efforts are directed at elucidating molecular mechanisms of viral persistence and virulence caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), considered the most important infectious disease problems of swine. In addition to their economic impact, both viruses represent relevant biological systems for understanding mechanisms of viral pathogenesis, including evasion strategies. Research focuses at the population, cellular and molecular levels and incorporates the use of reverse genetic systems. The results are being applied to the development of novel vaccine and diagnostic testing strategies.  My research is supported by competitive funding from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, the National Pork Board and from commercial companies.

Recent Professional Activities

Project Director, 2008-present, U.S. Department of Agriculture's multistate Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Coordinated Agricultural Project, a four-year program to effectively coordinate efforts aimed at dealing with the disease that includes research, education and extension.

Associate Director, 2010-present, Center of Excellence for Emerging and Zoonotic Animal Diseases (CEEZAD), funded by the Department of Homeland Security.

Co-Director, 2009-present, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Host Genetics Consortium, a multiyear project devoted to understanding the genetics of the interaction between the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and its host.

Executive Director, 2010-present, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome International Symposium.

2007, Pfizer Animal Health Award for Research Excellence.


My current focus is the training of PhD and DVM students in research along with the teaching of undergraduate students through the research laboratory experience. Currently, I am the course coordinator for the DMP 910 graduate course, Viral Pathogenesis, and present introductory virology lectures for the Veterinary Curriculum DMP 722 – Veterinary Virology. Past graduate and undergraduate teaching experience includes lectures and/or laboratories in Immunology, Molecular Microbial Genetics, Medical Microbiology, Microbial Pathogenesis, and graduate technique courses in molecular biology. 

Selected Publications

Cino-Ozuna, AG, S Henry, R Hesse, JC Nietfeld, J Bai, HM Scott, RRR Rowland. 2011. Characterization of a new disease syndrome associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in previously vaccinated herds. J Clin Micro. In press.

Trible, BR, M Kerrigan, N Crossland, M Potter, K Faaberg, R Hesse, RRR Rowland. Porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein epitopes associated with vaccination, infection and disease. Clin Vacc Immunol. In press.

Holtkamp, DJ, DP Polson, M Torremorell, DVM, PhD; R Morrison,  D Augsburger, L Becton, S Henry,  M Rodibaugh, R Rowland, H Snelson,  B Straw, P Yeske,  J Zimmerman. 2011. Terminology for classifying swine herds by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus status. JSHAP, Vol. 19. No. 1.

Rowland, JM, RRR Rowland and T Geisbert. Chapter 14, Ebolaviruses. Diseases of Swine, accepted for publication.

Lunney JK, DA Benfield DA, RR Rowland. 2010. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: an update on an emerging and re-emerging viral disease of swine. Virus Res. 154:1-6.

Rowland, RRR. 2010. The interaction between PRRSV and the late gestation pig fetus . Virus Res., 154:114-122.

Ma W, AL Vincent, KM Lager, BH Janke, SC Henry, RR Rowland, RA Hesse, JA Richt. 2010. Identification and characterization of a highly virulent triple reassortant H1N1 swine influenza virus in the United States. Virus Genes 40:28-36.

Sang, Y, RR Rowland, F Blecha. 2010. Differential expression and activity of the porcine type I interferon family. Physiol Genom. 42:248-258.

Lunney, JK,  ER Fritz, JM Reecy, D Kuhar, E Prucnal, R Molina, J Christopher-Hennings, J Zimmermam, RRR Rowland. 2010. Interleukin-8, interleukin-1beta, and interferon-gamma levels are linked to PRRS virus clearance. Viral Immunol. 23:127-134.

Mohammadi, H, S Sharif, RRR Rowland, D. Yoo. 2009. The lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus capsid protein is a nuclear-cytoplasmic protein. Arch Virol. 154:1071-1080.

Sang, Y, P Ruchala, R Lehrer, CR Ross, RRR Rowland, Frank Blecha. 2009. Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides in an Arteriviral Infection: Differential Peptide Expression and Virus Inactivation. Viral Immun. 22:235-42.

Brown E, S Lawson, C Welbon, J Gnanandarajah, J Li,MP Murtaugh , Nelson EA, RM Molina, JJ Zimmerman, RR Rowland, Y Fang. 2009. Antibody response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nonstructural proteins and implications for diagnostic detection and differentiation of PRRSV types I and II.  Clin Vaccine Immunol. 16:628-635.

Gaudreault, N, RR Rowland, CR Wyatt. 2009. Factors affecting the permissiveness of porcine alveolar macrophages for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Archiv Virol.  154:133-136.

Molina, RM, EA Nelson, J Christopher-Hennings R Hesse, RR Rowland, JJ Zimmerman.2008. Evaluation of the risk of PRRSV transmission via ingestion of muscle from persistently infected pigs. Transbound Emerg Dis. 56:1-8.

Kim, DY, TJ Kaiser, K Horlen, ML Keith, LP Taylor, R Jolie, JG Calvert, RR Rowland. 2008. Insertion and deletion in a non-essential region of the nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus: effects on virulence and immunogenicity. Virus Genes.  38:118-128.

Ho, C-S, Y-J Lee, JK Lunney, MH Franzo-Romain, GW Martens, J-H Lee, M Wysocki, RRR Rowland, DM Smith. 2009.  Molecular characterization of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes in outbred pig populations. Anim Genetics. 40:468-478.

Molina RM, S Cha, W Chittick, S Lawson, MP Murtaugh, EA Nelson, J Christopher-Hennings, K-J Yoon, R Evans, RRR Rowland, J Zimmerman. 2008.  Immune response against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus during acute and chronic infection.  Vet Immunol Immunopathol 126:283-292.

Patton, JP, RRR Rowland, D Yoo and K-O Chang. 2008. Modulation of CD163 receptor expression and replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in porcine macrophages.  Virus Res. 140(1-2): 161-71.

Molina, R, W Chittick, E Nelson, J Christopher-Hennings, RRR Rowland, JJ Zimmerman. 2008. Diagnostic performance of assays for the detection of anti-Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus antibodies in serum and muscle transudate ("meat juice") based on samples collected under experimental conditions. J Vet Diagn Invest. 20(6):735-43.

Sang, Y, C Ross, RR Rowland, F Blecha.2008. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) activation decreases porcine arterivirus infection. Viral Immunol 21:303-313.

Sang, Y, J Yang, C Ross, RRR Rowland, and F Blecha, 2008. Molecular identification and functional expression of porcine Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR7. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 125(1-2):162-7.

Horlen, KP, SS Dritz, JC Nietfeld, SC Henry, RA Hesse, MS, R Oberst, M Hays, J Anderson, RRR Rowland. 2008.  A field evaluation of pig mortality and performance following commercial vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2.  J Am Vet Med Assoc. 232:906-912.

Hesse, RA, M Kerrigan, RRR Rowland. 2008. Evidence for recombination between PCV2a and PCV2b in the field. Virus Res. 132:201-207.

Frias-Staheli N, NV Giannakopoulos, M Kikkert, SL Taylor, A Bridgen, J Paragas, JA Richt, RR Rowland, CS Schmaljohn, DJ Lenschow, EJ Snijder, A García-Sastre, HW Virgin 4th. 2007. Ovarian tumor domain-containing viral proteases evade ubiquitin- and ISG15-dependent innate immune responses. Cell Host Microbe 2:404-416.

Horlen, K, P Schneider, J Anderson, JC Nietfeld, SC Henry, LB Tokach, and RRR Rowland. 2007. A cluster of farms experiencing severe porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD): Clinical features and association with the PCV2b genotype. J Swine Health and Prod. 15:270-277.

Murtaugh MP, SA Dee, JJ Zimmerman, JK Lunney, and RRR Rowland. 2007. Recommendations for PRRS vaccine research. J. Swine Health and Production. (Letter to the Editor)

Kim, DY, JG Calvert, KO Chang, K Horlen, M Kerrigan, and RRR Rowland. 2007. Expression and stability of foreign tags inserted into nsp2 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Virus Res. 128:106-114.

Cheung, AK, LM  Lager, OI Kohutyuk, AL Vincent, SC Henry, RB Baker, RRR Rowland, and AG Dunham. 2007. Detection of two porcine circovirus type 2 genotypic groups in United States swine herds. Arch Virol. 152:1035-1044.

Fang, Y, P Schneider, W Zhang, KS Faaberg, EA Nelson, and RRR Rowland. 2007. Diversity and evolution of a newly emerged North American Type 1 porcine arterivirus: Analysis of isolates collected between 1999 and 2004. Archiv. Virol. 152:1009-1017.

Cafruny, WA, RG Duman, G Wong, S Suleman, P Ward-Demo, RRR Rowland, and EA Nelson. 2006. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection spreads by cell-to-cell transfer in cultured MARC-145 cells, is dependent on an intact cytoskeleton, and is suppressed by drug-targeting of cell permissiveness to viral infection. Virol J. 3:90.

Fang,Y, RRR Rowland, M Roof, JK Lunney, J Christopher-Hennings, and EA Nelson. 2006.  A Full-length cDNA Infectious Clone of North American Type 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Expression of green fluorescent protein in the nsp2 Region. J Virol 80:11447-11455.

Christopher-Hennings J, M Dammen, E Nelson, RRR Rowland, and R Oberst.  2006. Comparison of RNA extraction methods for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from boar semen. J Virol Meth 136:248-253.

Fang, Y, A Pekosz, L Haynes, EA Nelson, and RRR Rowland. 2006. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein of Sars-CoV. Adv Exp Med Biol. 581:153-6.

Plagemann, PGW, RRR Rowland, and WA Cafruny. 2005. Polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and formation of hydrophobic immune complexes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected and uninfected pigs. Viral Immunol 18: 138-147.

Wu, WH, Y Fang, RR Rowland, SR Lawson, J Christopher-Hennings, KJ Yoon, and EA Nelson. 2005. The 2b protein as a minor structural component of PRRSV. Virus Res 114:177-181.

Rowland, RRR, V Chauhan, Y Fang, A Pekosz, M Kerrigan, and MD Burton. 2005. Intracellular localization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: absence of nucleolar accumulation during infection and after expression as a recombinant protein in vero cells. J Virol 79:11507-11512.

Rowland, RRR, J Kastner, J Hauser, and M Kerrigan. Rinderpest virus-revised monograph.2005.  Prepared for: Office of CounterproliferationBiological and Chemical Warfare Assessments Division Defense Intelligence Agency.