Beef Research News
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Feedlot health and performance associations with BRD timing
Generalized linear mixed models were developed using retrospective feedlot data collected on individually treated cattle (n = 31,131) to determine whether cattle performance and health outcomes in feedlot cattle were associated with timing of treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) during the feeding phase. Cattle that died at any point during the feeding phase were removed from the analysis. Information on individual animal performance (ADG, HCW, quality grade, yield grade) and health outcomes (treatments) were incorporated into an economic model that generated a standardized net return estimate for each animal. Prices were standardized to minimize variation between economic outcomes due to market conditions allowing direct comparisons of health and performance effects between animals. While controlling for gender, risk code, and arrival weight class, potential associations between net returns, and the timing of BRD identification were investigated using 2 categorical variables created to measure time: 1) weeks on feed at initial BRD treatment (WKFA), and 2) weeks from BRD treatment to harvest (WKTH). The first model using net return as the outcome identified an interaction between WKFA and animal arrival weight. Cattle with arrival BW between 227 and 272 kg (5WT) and 273 and 318 kg (6WT) displayed lower net returns (P < 0.05) if treated during wk 1 as compared to subsequent weeks in the first month of the feeding phase. The cattle with BW between 319 and 363 kg (7WT) and 364 and 408 kg (8WT) exhibited lower net returns (P < 0.05) if treated during the later weeks of the feeding phase compared to earlier in the feeding phase. The number of times cattle were treated contributed to variation in net returns for the 5WT and 6WT cattle. For the 7WT and 8WT cattle, HCW was the main factor contributing to lower net returns when cattle were treated late in the feeding phase. The second model identified an interaction between WKTH and arrival weight. The 4WT, 5WT, 6WT, 7WT, and 8WT cattle all exhibited lower net returns (P < 0.05) when cattle were on feed fewer weeks from BRD treatment to harvest. Cattle with more weeks on feed between BRD treatment and harvest had greater HCW, lower ADG, and more total treatments compared to cattle treated closer to harvest. This research indicates that timing of initial BRD treatment is associated with performance and health outcomes.
A. H. Babcock, B. J. White, S. S. Dritz, D. U. Thomson and D. G. Renter. Feedlot health and performance effects associated with the timing of respiratory disease treatment.
Published online first on September 2, 2008 J. Anim Sci. 1910. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1201
Effects of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport vaccination on dairy production
The objective of this research was to determine effects of vaccination with siderophore receptor and porin (SRP) proteins derived from Salmonella enterica serotype Newport on milk production, somatic cell count, and shedding of Salmonella organisms in 180 female dairy cattle. Cattle were randomly assigned to receive Salmonella Newport SRP vaccine or control solution. Vaccine or control solution was injected 45 to 60 days before parturition, and cattle received a second dose 14 to 21 days before parturition. Milk production was monitored for the first 90 days of lactation. Feces for isolation of Salmonella and blood samples for detection of antibodies against Salmonella Newport were collected at day of first injection and at days 7 to 14 and 28 to 35 of lactation. Cattle inoculated with Salmonella Newport vaccine produced significantly more milk (1.14 kg/d), compared with cattle injected with the control solution. Cattle administered the vaccine had significantly higher concentrations of circulating antibody against Salmonella Newport SRP proteins at 7 to 14 days and 28 to 35 days of lactation. Salmonella Newport was not recovered; however, Salmonella enterica serotype Agona was recovered from 31 (20.3%) cattle, but likelihood of recovery did not differ significantly between vaccinates and control cattle. Administration of a vaccine against Salmonella Newport SRP proteins to healthy dairy cattle prior to parturition increased milk production, even in cattle without detectable shedding of Salmonella Newport or clinical signs of salmonellosis. Additional research is needed to clarify the mechanisms by which productivity was improved.
Hermesch, D.R., D. U. Thomson, G. H. Loneragan, D. R. Renter, and B. J. White. Effects of a commercially available vaccine against Salmonella enterica serotype Newport on milk production, somatic cell count, and shedding of Salmonella organisms in female dairy cattle with no clinical signs of salmonellosis. American Journal of Veterinary Research September 2008, Vol. 69, No. 9, Pages 1229-1234
Injection techniques and effect on tissue
The incidence and severity of injection-site lesions has decreased since the development of the Beef Quality Assurance program. The objective was to evaluate route of administration and pharmaceutical product on the impact on tenderness, collagen concentration, and lesion occurrence in muscles of chucks and rounds. One hundred forty-four yearling steers (initial BW = 383 ± 29.4 kg) were selected and transported to Oklahoma State University. Based on initial BW, steers were blocked into 2 groups of 72 and randomly allocated, within block, into pens of 6 head per pen (12 pens per block). Each pen was randomly assigned an injection protocol. On May 19, 2006 (day 0), steers were administered one of the following treatment injections: standard Biobullet containing 100 mg of ceftiofur sodium (Naxel, Pfizer Inc.); traditional needle and syringe dose of ceftiofur sodium; standard Biobullet containing BallistiVac IBR (Titanium 5, SolidTech Animal Health); traditional needle and syringe dose of IBR; traditional needle and syringe dose of Vira Shield 5; standard placebo Biobullet; or a traditional needle and syringe dose of sterile water. Percentage of samples with an identifiable lesion did not differ by drug administered or injection method. Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) values of lesion center cores in chucks tended to be significantly different (P = 0.07) than cores from the control steaks, and at 2.54 and 5.08 cm away from the lesion center. Lesion centers from the Biobullet•BallistiVac IBR had a WBSF value of 7.01 kg, which were greater (P < 0.05) than lesion centers from chucks injected with a Biobullet•placebo (6.27 kg) or needle•ceftiofur sodium (5.08 kg). No significant differences (P > 0.10) were observed in the total collagenous connective tissue (B) in samples extracted from the chuck or round. The comparison of lesion site and control (non lesion site) samples for lipid concentration showed no significant difference (P > 0.10) among treatments in the round. It was concluded Biobullet did not create a greater occurrence of lesions in the muscles of the chuck and round. The Biobullet is not an appropriate injection method in the round of beef cattle as it caused tissue damage similar to a needle injection. However, the Biobullet can be effectively used in neck (chuck) applications without additional negative effects on tenderness.
Sullivan, M.M., D. L. VanOverbeke, L. A. Kinman, C. R. Krehbiel, G. G. Hilton and J. B. Morgan Comparison of the Biobullet versus traditional pharmaceutical injection techniques on injection-site tissue damage and tenderness in beef subprimals. Published online first on October 10, 2008 J. Anim Sci. 1910. doi:10.2527/jas.2007-0763
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